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微笑为何会成为人类的友好举动

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微笑为何会成为人类的友好举动

微笑为何会成为人类的友好举动

作者/编辑:英语学习 http://www.unjs.com 英语阅读
  [微笑为何会成为人类的友好举动] Anthony Stocks, chairman and professor of anthropology1 at Idaho State University, responds:    "The evolution of smiles is opaque2 and, as with many evolutionary3 accounts of social behavior, fraught4 with just-soism. Among human babies, however, the 'tooth-baring' smile is associated less with friendship than with fright--which, one might argue, is related to the tooth-baring threats of baboons5. On the other hand, a non-toothy, not-so-broad-but-open-lipped smile is associated with pleasure in human infants. Somehow we seem to have taken the fright-threat sort of smile and extended it to strangers as a presumably friendly smile. Maybe it is not as innocent as it seems.   "All cultures recognize a variety of mouth gestures as indexes of inner emotional states. As in our own culture, however, smiles come in many varieties, not all of them interpreted as friendly."   Frank McAndrew, professor of psychology6 at Knox College in Galesburg, Ill., has done extensive research on facial expressions. He answers as follows:   "Baring one's teeth is not always a threat. In primates7, showing the teeth, especially teeth held together, is almost always a sign of submission9. The human smile probably has evolved from that.   "In the primate8 threat, the lips are curled back and the teeth are apart--you are ready to bite. But if the teeth are pressed together and the lips are relaxed, then clearly you are not prepared to do any damage. These displays are combined with other facial features, such as what you do with your eyes, to express a whole range of feelings. In a lot of human smiling, it is something you do in public, but it does not reflect true 'friendly' feelings--think of politicians smiling for photographers.   "What is especially interesting is that you do not have to learn to do any of this--it is preprogrammed behavior. Kids who are born blind never see anybody smile, but they show the same kinds of smiles under the same situations as sighted people."   McAndrew suggests several books that will be of interest to readers seeking more information on this topic:   'Non-Verbal Communication.' Edited by R. A. Hinde. Cambridge University Press, 1972.   'Emotion: A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis.' Robert Plutchik. Harper and Row, 1980.   'Emotion in the Human Face.' Second edition. Edited by Paul Ekman. Cambridge University Press, 1982
微笑为何会成为人类的友好举动2
  第2篇 中国观众不满夏洛克第四季
  〖预览〗 The latest series of British drama Sherlock has received over six million viewings on China's video streaming site Youku.com and generated heated discussions since it was released on January 1.   英剧《神探夏洛克》第四季自1月1日在中国上映以来,已在视频网站优酷播放600多万次。     Yet many Chinese fans and mainstream1 media say they find the fourth season not as attractive as its predecessors2.   The current season as usual includes a total of three episodes, with one episode being aired so far, which fans say has given too much ink to the characters' emotions and too le……【全文阅读:中国观众不满夏洛克第四季
微笑为何会成为人类的友好举动3
  第3篇 华为Mate9将在美国发售
  〖预览〗 Huawei, the world's third-largest smartphone manufacturer, will began sales of its Mate 9 smartphones in the United States on Jan. 6th.   世界第三大智能手机制造商华为将于1月6日在美国发售Mate 9智能手机。   This is Huawei's first foray into the U.S. top-end smartphone market.   The launch of the Mate 9 in the U.S., one of the largest smartphone markets in the world, is said to be part of the Chinese technology giant's effort to sell more high-end devices to take on Samsung and Apple in the global smartphone market. In 2015, Huawei became the world's third-larg……【全文阅读:华为Mate9将在美国发售】   〔微笑为何会成为人类的友好举动
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