英语语法之主谓一致解析

英语语法之主谓一致解析

时间:2018-12-07 英语语法

  一.概念:

  主谓一致是指:

  1) 语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。

  2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。

  3) 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,

  一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。例如:

  There is much water in the thermos.

  但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

  Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.

  二.相关精讲

  1.并列结构作主语时谓语用复数,例如:

  Reading and writing are very important. 读写很重要。

  注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。例如:

  The iron and steel industry is very important to our life. 钢铁工业对我们的生活有重要意义。

  典型例题

  The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting.

  A. is B. was C. are D. were

  答案B. 注:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C。本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

  2. 主谓一致中的靠近原则

  1)当there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。例如:

  There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk. 桌上有一支笔、一把小刀和几本书。

  There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.班上有二十个男孩,二十三个女孩。

  2)当either… or… 与neither… nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。例如:

  Either you or she is to go. 不是你去,就是她去。

  Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you. 给你笔、信封和纸。

  3.谓语动词与前面的主语一致

  当主语有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词组成的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语部分一致。例如:

  The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 教师和一些学生在参观工厂。

  He as well as I wants to go boating.他和我想去划船。

  4. 谓语需用单数的情况

  1)代词each以及由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语时,或主语中含有each, every时, 谓语需用单数。例如:

  Each of us has a tape-recorder. 我们每人都有录音机。

  There is something wrong with my watch. 我的表坏了。

  2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。例如:

  The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 《天方夜谭》是英语爱好者熟悉的一本书。

  3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。例如:

  Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. 用三个星期来做准备。

  Ten yuan is enough. 十元够了。

  5.指代意义决定谓语的单复数

  1)代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。例如:

  All is right. 一切顺利。

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