考研阅读理解Part A命题规律与答题技巧:(二)

考研英语 时间:2007-04-05 我要投稿
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二)事实细节题

1.事实细节题的特点、种类及题干表现形式

    事实细节题在阅读理解题中占很大比重,而且也较简单,是拿分的部分。针对文章事实和有关细节提问的题型有一个特点,即:所提问题一般可以在文章中直接或间接找到答案。但正确选项不可能与阅读材料的原句一模一样,而是用不同的词语或句型表达相同的意思。命题人在改变语句的形式时惯用的方式有四种,即:简化语言,正话反说,反话正说和关键词替换。具体来说,事实细节题包括:

1)直接事实细节题:指利用词性变换,同义、近义词替换等手段考查对原文细节信息的正确理解的试题,如原文肯定的表达换成否定的;正面与反面表达的转换;原因与结果的转换;条件与目的的转换等。

2)间接事实细节题:指隐含的事实细节题,考查对文章展示的细节的综合概括能力,要求考生不仅读懂关键词的意思,还能体味言外之意。

3)排除式结构:找出原文提及或未提及的内容,一一排除,对号入座。排除式结构的形式是从四个选项种选择一个正确或不正确、提及或未提及的信息,还可进一步划分为三误一正题和三正一误题两种。

4)例证题:指考查对列举与举例关系的理解的试题。

事实细节题通常用what, which, why, who, when, how, how many, because, cause, reason, result, mention, not mention, true, not true 等词语表达。如:

(1)According to the passage, who (what/ where/ which/ when/ why/ how/ etc.) ...?

(2)The study shows that ____.   

(3)From the first three paragraphs, we learn that ____.   

(4)....is revealed in the fact that...

(5)The author argues...because ____.    

(6)According to the passage,  ____.  

(7)As a result of ..., ... in that  ____. 

(8)The real cause of ... is that ____.   

(9)The direct/main reason for ...is that ____.    

(10)...resulted in ____.

(11)Which of the following is incorrect/ not mentioned/not included?

(12)Which of the following statements is true/false according to the text?

(13)All of the following are (not) true/are (not) mentioned except ____.     

(14)The author mentions all of the items listed below except ____.    

(15)The writer wants to prove with example of...that ____.    

(16)The example of ...is used to ____.     

(17)The writer mentions the case of...to justify ____.     

(18)The author uses the phrase/expression "..." to illustrate      .

(19)What does the example of ... show/illustrate?

(20) The author gives the two examples in Para.2 to show ____.

2.事实细节题的命题规律

1) 列举处常考:列举处指有并列词出现的部分。要求考生从列举的内容中,选出符合题目要求的答案。列举可以采用数字排序,也可以采用排比句的方式。

2) 举例子与打比方的地方常考:文章中作者为了论证自己的观点,常常采用举例子或者打比方的方式来证明。考生应充分重视和理解这些例子和比喻。

3) (指示)代词常考:代词常常指代上下文中的某些人物、事件,常用来考查考生是否真正理解上下文之间的语义和逻辑关系。

4) 表示转折、递进、因果等关系的副词和连词处常考:这些副词和连词对理解文章前后的内容和关系起着重要作用,如:thus, therefore, however, moreover等,在看到它们时就应该注意前后的句子。

5) 引言处常考:作者为了使自己的观点更有说服力,常常引用某些名人的名言或者权威人士的论断来加重语气,引起读者注意。

6) 特殊标点处常考:特殊标点符号通常是对其前后内容的进一步解释或说明,如:破折号、括号、冒号、引号等。

3.事实细节题干扰项与正确选项的特点

1)干扰项特点:

A 照抄部分原文信息;

B 含有原文中没有的内容;

C 与原文相矛盾的内容;

D 张冠李戴的内容(把A的特征加在B上);

E 偷梁换柱的内容:与原文内容一半相同一半不同,即选项仍用文章中的句法结构和大部分词汇,但换了几个关键词造成意思上的改变。

F 与原句内容相似但过于绝对化。

2)正确选项的特点:

A 事实细节题中,一般照抄原文的不是正确答案,而同义替换的是正确选项。

B 排除式题型:问选项中哪一个正确(包括在内)或错误(不包括在内)的题。一般来说,含有一些概括性太强的词(如:only, everything, all, none, must, never, always, too, so, alone, everyone, entirely, absolute, mainly, any, have to, no, very, completely, hardly, the most等)的选项都是错误的。而含有不肯定词:some, sometimes, certain, someone, more...than, (not) as...as, less等的选项往往正确。

C 这类题的答案往往在两个意义相近或相反的选项中。

4. 事实细节题的答题技巧例解

    解答此类题时,考生需要先抓住问题中的关键词,然后迅速回到文章中找到这一细节,再把细节所在段落仔细阅读一遍,与所给选项核对、分析、判断,得出正确答案。

1)若针对特殊标点符号(破折号、引号、冒号)、举例子、名人名言出题,只需阅读符号、例子、名言前后的内容,然后与选项核对。例如:

The new research has profound implications for the environmental summit in Rio. Among other things, the findings demonstrate that dramatic climate change is nothing new for planet Earth. The benign global environment that has existed over the past 10,000 years—during which agriculture, writing, cities and most other features of civilization appeared—is a mere bright spot in a much large pattern of widely varying climate over the ages. In fact the pattern of climate change in the past reveals that Earth's climate will almost certainly go through dramatic changes in the future — even without the influence of human activity.

Q: Evidence of past climatic changes indicates that ____.      

[A] human activities have accelerated changes of Earth’s environment

[B] Earth's environment will remain mild despite human interference

[C] Earth's climate is bound to change significantly in the future

[D] Earth's climate is unlikely to undergo substantial changes in the future

答案是[C]。题干是说以往的气候变化表明了什么,四个选项都与人类活动有关,迅速回到文中最后一段(上文)破折号后面—even without the influence of human activity, 意即即使没有人类活动的影响,表明气候变化与人类活动联系不大;破折号前Earth's climate will almost certainly go through dramatic changes in the future, 意即未来全球气候肯定会剧烈变化。综合破折号前后得出未来全球气候将会剧烈变化。

2)在出现一些关键词,如however, but, moreover, therefore, thus时,要特别注意句子前后意义的转折、递进、因果等关系。例如:

 Not too many decades ago it seemed that "obvious" both to the general public and to sociologists that modern society has changes people's natural relations, loosened their responsibilities to kin (亲戚) and neighbors, and substituted in their place superficial relationships with passing acquaintances. However, in recent years a growing body of research has reveals that the "obvious" is not true.

 It seems that if you are a city resident, you typically know a smaller proportion of your neighbors than you do if you are a resident at a smaller community. But, for the most part this fact has few significant consequences. It does not necessarily follow that if you know few of your neighbors you will know no one else.

Q:  Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the first paragraph?

 [A]Two contrasting views are presented.

 [B]An argument is examined and possible solutions given.

 [C]Research results concerning the quality of urban life are presented in order of time.

 [D]A detailed deion of the difference between urban and small-town life is given.

答案是[A]。题目问哪一个选项恰当地描述了第一段(上文)的组织结构。[A]提供了两种相对比的观点。阅读第一段发现,前一部分讲过去人们认为现代社会割裂了人与人之间的自然联系,后面讲最新的研究表明这个论断并不正确。However引导的是并列成分,因而答案要兼顾两个观点。[B]只提到了一个观点及解决方案;[C]只提到一个观点;[D]有迷惑性,说关于城市与城镇生活不同之处的详细描述,但问题问的是组织结构,显然[A]两种互相对比的观点为正确答案。

3)事实细节题的答案一般是同义替换项或者同义转换项。例如: 

Yet Rosa could not find any evidence that it works. To provide such proof, TT therapists would have to sit down for independent