考研阅读理解Part A命题规律与答题技巧(五)

考研英语 时间:2007-04-05 我要投稿
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五) 观点态度题

1.观点态度题的种类及题干表现形式

    作者的观点或态度题主要考查考生能否正确理解作者的写作意图、所持的观点及阐述文章主题时的语气或对他所论述的对象的态度。回答这类问题,考生务必细心地注意作者在描述事实和表达观点时所使用的词汇。作者往往要用一些带有个人感情色彩或褒贬之分的词汇来表明自己的态度。要正确判断作者的观点,必须把上下文联系起来看,文章中所述的内容并非都代表了作者的观点。

这类题目用的关键提问词或词组有attitude, opinion, deem, show, according to the author, in the author's eye, disagree, feel, idea, impression等等。比如:

 (1)The passage shows that the author is ____.      

 (2)The author's attitude towards ...seems to be ____.        

 (3)According to the author, ____.       

 (4)In the author's opinion/In the author's eyes/In the writer's opinion, ...

 (5)The author thinks/believes/suggests/deems that ____.     

 (6)How does the author feel about ____.       

 (7)The author is most critical of ____.       

 (8)What is the author's opinion/idea about ...?

 (9)Which of the following will the author agree/disagree with?

(10)The author's attitude towards ... might be summarized as one of  ____.    

(11)The tone of the passage can best be described as/is ____.       

(12)What is the tone/mood of the passage?

(13)Which of the following can best describe the attitude of the author towards... ?

2.观点态度题的命题规律

1) 涉及文章思想处常考:文章的中心思想、组织脉络与作者的观点和态度密切相关,要理解作者的观点,需要通读全文,分析作者的思路,把握文章脉络,而后才能正确揣摩出作者的思想和态度。

2) 作者提出观点处常考:议论文中作者思路一般是先提出观点,而后给予论证和支持,最后得出与观点相一致的结论。因此理解了作者的意图和态度,就把握了作者的基本态度和中心思想。

3) 语义转折和对比处常考:语义转折和对比处往往是作者提出自己观点的地方,是表明其基本思想,反映其观点和态度的关键所在。

4) 复杂句和特殊句型或句式处常考:复杂句一般暗含作者的态度和观点,特殊句型或句式提示读者注意所说内容的重要性,该内容一般与作者观点和态度有密切联系。

3.观点态度题干扰项与正确选项的特点

1)干扰项特点:

A 张冠李戴:别人的观点与作者的观点相混,两个事物相混;

B 此类题型中的中性词(如indifferent, ambivalent, neutral, humor, disinterested, impassive)一般均为干扰项。由于近几年文章都是反映与社会联系紧密、多为人们所担心的现象,故作者对这些社会现象持批评或支持态度的较多。

2)正确选项的特点:

A 态度推理判断题,需注意行文中有无一定感情色彩的词。这种题的答案一般多为褒义词。

B 如果问对行文中提到的人们的观点态度,答案多为肯定或否定,绝对不会是中性。

C 如文章开头提出一种现象,加以论述,作者的观点多为支持。如开始是问句,答案往往是肯定的。

D 尤其注意行文中出现的claimed as, suppose, perceive as, considered as, ranked as 等词,这些词往往与作者的观点态度相反。

4.观点态度题答题技巧例解

这类题型测试考生在阅读完文章后,能否正确理解文章语气和作者态度、观点。回答这类题目,不仅要理解全文大意,而且要抓住表达作者态度、观点、意图的关键词,方可得出答案。

1)对于综合判断情感态度的问题,需分析段落大意,分析文章风格,理解文章中心思想。例如: 

The MBA, a 20th-century product, always has borne the mark of lowly commerce and greed on the tree-lined campuses ruled by purer disciplines such as philosophy and literature.

Q:  According to Paragraph 2, the author's attitude towards business on campuses dominated by purer disciplines seems to be____.       

 [A]scornful    [B]appreciative    [C]envious    [D]realistic

答案是[A]。文章第二段(上文)意即,在充满书卷气的绿树成荫的校园里,MBA的商业气息与贪婪显得不那么浓重了。文章谈论的是对MBA价值的怀疑,因此不可能是[B] appreciative,[C]envious;而作者在第二段的描述带有浓厚的个人感情色彩,因此也不是[D] realistic;最终得出作者的态度是不屑一顾的, [A]是正确答案。

2)在分析作者的观点态度时,要善于抓住阐述作者思想的句子,从中挖掘信息做出正确的判断。例如: 

Under these circumstances, the question of what future there is for the arts of reading is a real one. Ahead of us lie technical, psychic, and social transformations probably much more dramatic than those brought about by Gutenberg, the German inventor in printing. The Gutenberg revolution, as we now know it, took a long time; its effects are still being debated. The information revolution will touch every fact of composition, publication, distribution, and reading. No one in the book industry can say with any confidence what will happen to the book as we've known it.

Q:  About the future of the arts of reading the author feels____.       

 [A]upset     [B]uncertain     [C]alarmed     [D]pessimistic

答案是[B]。文章前面一直在说美国人的文化程度,尤其是中产阶级的阅读能力令人担忧。文章最后一段(上文)最后一句No one in the book industry can say with any confidence what will happen to the book as we誺e known it. 表达了作者的feeling,意即没有人对未来书籍会发生什么变化抱有信心,也就是[B] uncertain不确定。

3)要分清选项中的褒义词、中性词和贬义词,以此对照文章,分析作者的语气和态度。

A 褒义词有:positive, supporting, admiring, optimistic, praising, humorous, enthusiastic, pleasant, polite, interesting, sober, approving 等;

B 中性词有:indifferent, neutral, impersonal, subjective, impassive, ambivalent, objective, informative, impartial, apathetic 等;

C 贬义词有:disgusted, critical, depressed, disappointed, ironic, sarcastic, cynical, sentimental, negative, suspicious, tolerant, worried 等。