Section ⅠUse of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
The fitness movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s centered around aerobic exercise. Millions of individuals became 1 in a variety of aerobic activities, and 2 thousands of health spas 3 around the country to capitalize on his 4 interest in fitness, particularly aerobic dancing for females. A number of fitness spas existed 5 to this aerobic fitness movement, even a national chain with spas in most major cities. However, their 6 was not on aerobics, 7 on weight?training programs designed to develop muscular mass, 8 , and endurance in their primarily male 9 . These fitness spas did not seem to benefit 10 from the aerobic fitness movement to better health, since medical opinion suggested that weight?training programs 11 few, if 12, health benefits. In recent years, however, weight training has again become increasingly 13 for males and for females. Many 14 programs focus not only on developing muscular strength and endurance but on aerobic fitness as well.
15, most physical fitness tests have usually included measures of muscular strength and endurance, not for health related reasons, but primarily 16 such fitness components have been related to 17 in athletics. 18, in recent years, evidence has shown that training programs designed primarily to improve muscular strength and endurance might also offer some health 19 as well. The American College of Sports Medicine now 20 that weight training be part of a total fitness program for healthy Americans.
1.[A] imposed engaged [C] confined [D] illustrated
2.[A] affluently eligibly [C] gorgeously [D] literally
3.[A] enhanced manifested [C] developed [D] established
4.[A] emerging hovering [C] intriguing [D] mingling
5.[A] prior entitled [C] liable [D] subjected
6.[A] action focus [C] cement [D] snap
7.[A] or or else [C] and [D] but rather
8.[A] strength nutrition [C] tolerance [D] ambition
9.[A] practitioners enthusiasts [C] referees [D] recipients
10.[A] financially particularly [C] legitimately [D] excessively
11.[A] presented offered [C] indicated [D] demonstrated
12.[A] something some [C] anything [D] any
13.[A] popular vigorous [C] intelligible [D] formidable
14.[A] current primitive [C] uneven [D] incredible
15.[A] Practically Eventually [C] Essentially [D] Historically
16.[A] because in only [C] although [D] now that
17.[A] performance harassment [C] identification [D] portrayal
18.[A] Moreover Therefore [C] However [D] Anyway
19.[A] advantages benefits [C] interests [D] profits
20.[A] recommends reassures [C] speculates [D] mediates
Section ⅡReading Comprehension
Directions: Reading the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Gene therapy and gene?based drugs are two ways we could benefit from our growing mastery of genetic science. But there will be others as well. Here is one of the remarkable therapies on the cutting edge of genetic research that could make their way into mainstream medicine in the coming years.
While it’s true that just about every cell in the body has the instructions to make a complete human, most of those instructions are inactivated, and with good reason: the last thing you want for your brain cells is to start churning out stomach acid or your nose to turn into a kidney. The only time cells truly have the potential to turn into any and all body parts is very early in a pregnancy, when so?called stem cells haven’t begun to specialize.
Yet this untapped potential could be a terrific boon to medicine. Most diseases involve the death of healthy cells — brain cells in Alzheimer’s, cardiac cells in heart disease, pancreatic cells in diabetes, to name a few; if doctors could isolate stem cells, then direct their growth, they might be able to furnish patients with healthy replacement tissue.
It was incredibly difficult, but last fall scientists at the University of Wisconsin managed to isolate stem cells and get them to grow into neural, gut, muscle and bone cells. The process still can’t be controlled, and may have unforeseen limitations; but if efforts to understand and master stem?cell development prove successful, doctors will have a therapeutic tool of incredible power.
The same applies to cloning, which is really just the other side of the coin; true cloning, as first shown with the sheep Dolly two years ago, involves taking a developed cell and reactivating the genome within, resetting its developmental instructions to a pristine state. Once that happens, the rejuvenated cell can develop into a full?fledged animal, genetically identical to its parent.
For agriculture, in which purely physical characteristics like milk production in a cow or low fat in a hog have real market value, biological carbon copies could become routine within a few years. This past year scientists have done for mice and cows what Ian Wilmut did for Dolly, and other creatures are bound to join the cloned menagerie in the coming year.
Human cloning, on the other hand, may be technically feasible but legally and emotionally more difficult. Still, one day it will happen. The ability to reset body cells to a pristine, undeveloped state could give doctors exactly the same advantages they would get from stem cells: the potential to make healthy body tissues of all sorts, and thus to cure disease. That could prove to be a true “miracle cure.”
21.The writer holds that the potential to make healthy body tissues will
[A] aggravate moral issues of human cloning.
bring great benefits to human beings.
[C] help scientists decode body instructions.
[D] involve employing surgical instruments.
22.The word “rejuvenated” (Para. 5) most probably means
[A] modified. re-collected. [C] classified. [D] reactivated.
23.The research at the University of Wisconsin is mentioned to show
[A] the isolation of stem cells. the effects of gene therapies.
[C] the advantages of human cloning. [D] the limitations of tissue replacements.
24.Which of the following is true according to the text?
[A] The principle of gene therapy is applicable to that of cloning.
The isolation of stem cells is too difficult to be feasible.
[C] It is reasonable for all body instructions to be activated.
[D] Cloned animals will eventually take control of the world.
25.Towards the genetic research, the author’s attitude can best be said to be that of
[A] Frustration. Indifference. [C] Amazement. [D] Opposition.
What our society suffers from most today is the absence of consensus about what it and life in it ought to be; such consensus cannot be gained from society’s present stage, or from fantasies about what it ought to be. For that the present is too close and too diversified, and the future too uncertain, to make believable claims about it. A consensus in the present hence can be achieved only through a shared understanding of the past, as Homer’s epics informed those who lived centuries later what it meant to be Greek, and by what images and ideals they were to live their lives and organize their societies.
Most societies derive consensus from a long history, a language all their own, a common religion, common ancestry. The myths by which they live