西安新东方06年考研翻译试题点评

考研英语 时间:2007-04-05 我要投稿
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        细中求稳、稳中求全、全中求精、精中求胜

  2006年考研翻译试题选择了一篇近些年非常热门的社会科学类文章,从总体来讲和以往的出题思路、难点设置基本相同。从结构上来分析,这次考查了五个定语从句、三个状语从句、两个比较结构和两个被动句型的翻译。从词汇考点分析,06年出题略难于05年,可以看出考研这种选拔型考试将更加重视学生语言基本功底的考核。然而考生在答卷时仍然存在着两方面的问题:第一,考生对复杂的句子结构仍然掌握不到位,对插入及倒装的理解和翻译还存在一定的困难;第二,对词义的掌握不精确,对某些关键词词义理解仍有偏差。下面是今年考研翻译部分原文:

Is it true that the American intellectual is rejected and considered of no account in his society? I am going to suggest that it is not true. Father Bruckbergen told part of the story when he observed that it is the intellectuals who have rejected American. But they have done more than that. They have grown dissatisfied with the role of intellectual. It is they, not American, who have become anti-intellectual.

First, the object of our study pleads for definition. What is an intellectual? (46)I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in a Socratic(苏格拉底) way about moral problems. He explores such problems consciously, articulately, and frankly, first by asking factual questions, then by asking moral questions, finally by suggesting action which seems appropriate in the light of the factual and moral information which he has obtained. (47) His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to this decision.

This definition excludes many individuals usually referred to as intellectuals—the average scientist for one. (48) I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems. Like other human beings, he encounters moral issues even in everyday performance of his routine duties—he is not supposed to cook his experiments, manufacture evidence or doctor his reports. (49) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. During most of his walking life he will take his code for granted, as the businessman takes his ethics.

The definition also excludes the majority of factors, despite the fact that teaching has traditionally been the method whereby many intellectuals earn their living. (50) They may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment. This deion even fits the majority eminent scholars. “Being learned in some branch of human knowledge is one thing, living in public and industrious thoughts,” as Emerson would say, “is something else.”

  我们逐一分析一下此次考试的五道试题:

  46:I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in a Socratic way about moral problems.

  按照四步翻译法的原则,该句的谓语结构语有两个:shall define ……as和has elected,由连词who将该句切为前后两个分句。第一个分句中考点为词组define ……as(把……定义为……);代词him根据就近搜索原则应指代What is an intellectual? 中的名词“intellectual”,故第一个分句可译为:我把知识分子定义为这样的个体。

  在第二个分句中,介词短语as his primary duty and pleasure in life做状语译为:作为他生命中的主要职责与乐趣;定于从句的先行词做本句主语,应先补充出来译为:这一个体选用苏格拉底的方式思考道德问题。后半句的难点在于as引导的介词短语做状语,作了前置处理,形成倒装形式,使得as his primary duty and pleasure in life将句子的谓语和宾语分开,给学生在考场上的理解和翻译造成了一定的难度,正确的语序应调整为:an individual has elected the activity of thinking in a Socratic way about moral problems as his primary duty and pleasure in life.

  整句合并翻译为:

  我把知识分子定义为这样的个体:他用苏格拉底的方式思考道德问题,并以此作为其生命中的主要职责与乐趣。

  47:His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to this decision.

  本句考查了两个定于从句套用的翻译,划完谓语后,句子可以分为三个分句:

     His function is analogous to that of a judge

     who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning

    which led him to this decision

  而这其中“analogous”算是个难词。但是有上下文“to that (function) of a judge”这本身就显示“his function”和“that of a judge”之间是某种类比关系,此处的“analogous”正是“类似”的意思,本段所讨论的仍是名词“intellectual”,所以,“His function”应理解为“知识分子的作用”;此外,短语结构 of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible亦可作of revealing in a manner as obvious as possible,译为:以尽可能浅显的方式去揭示; “the course of reasoning”的含义为 “推理的过程”; which led him to his decision这个定语从句较短,可以置于先行词前面翻译。最后,我们按照两个定语从句中的第一句砍开翻译,第二句合并翻译的原则译为:法官必须接受以尽可能浅显的方式揭示使其做出决定的推理过程的义务。由于“义务”的定语较长,我们也可将其从句子中独立出来,即:法官必须接受这一义务,就是以尽可能浅显的方式揭示使其做出决定的推理过程。

  整句合并翻译为:

  知识分子的作用与法官的作用类似,后者必须接受这一义务,就是以尽可能浅显的方式揭示使其做出决定的推理过程。

  48: I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.

  纵观全句,句子虽长,可是理解还是比较简单的。主要是主句加上一个本身带有让步状语从句的原因状语从句。根据谓语部分全句可划分为:

      I have excluded him

    Because he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems

    while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems

  在该句中him按照指代原则应理解为“average scientist”(一般科学家),其后的两个代词he和his也是相同的指代关系,但作为句内指代,我们可以直接译为代词“他”、“他的”即可;本句话的难点在于微观层面的词义把握:“exclude”与“include”相反,是“排除”的意思;“accomplishment”表示“成就”;“contribute to”意为“有利于”,“有助于”;“be charged with”应该是考生最难理解的地方,它最普通的意思是控告,但这里词组“be charged with the task of doing sth.”含义为“被委派做谋事的义务”或“有义务完成……的任务”,而“not…any but…”是固定搭配,表示only,理解为“仅仅”的含义。可见,考研翻译是以一定的词汇量为基础的。第二分句可理解为:因为他仅仅承担了这些问题的事实方面的研究任务;第三个分句是由while引导的在原因状语从句中的让步状语从句,其含义为:虽然他的成就有助于解决道德问题。该句还考查了学生被动句型的翻译技巧,我们应将被动句转主动句型翻译;“他承担了……”,而不是:“他被委派去……”。

  整句合并翻译为:

  我之所以把普通科学家排除在外,是因为虽然他的成就有助于解决道德问题,但是他仅仅承担了这些问题的事实方面的研究任务。

  49:But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.

  本句考查了比较结构的掌握,由一个比较结构“not……any more than”表示两者相同或类似,和一个非限制性定于从句将全句分割成三部分:

      But his primary task is not to think about the moral code

  &