Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:
Joblessness is far more than an economic misfortune.It can be a psychological disaster for the unemployed and their families.It can cause illness,divide families and create a downward spiral of feelings of worthlessness and lack of self esteem.According to research done by M. Harvery Brenner,associate professor of health at Johns Hopkins University,every 1% increase in the unemployment rate translates into 37,000 deaths over the next 6 years,including over 20,000 deaths from heart attcks,900 suicides and nearly 500 deaths from cirrhosis of the liver.In addition,Brenner estimates that 7,500 unemployed or their families will be admitted to prison after committing a crime or to a mental hospital.
“The impact goes well beyond the individual who loses a job,”said Brenner.“stress caused by economic factors affects our national life at every level.”Men who have been socialized as the family breadwinner are especially hard hit by unemployment.They suffer greater depression and anxiety and have a higher possibility of psychotic behavior than men who are employed.
“Nine months seems to be a crucial point when hope and patience give out,”said a leading psychologist. After that,“illness,suicide,alcoholism,divorce,and even crime grow at epidemic rate.”Left without a job,many workers feel they have nothing to look forward to.They miss their co瞱orkers and the routine of going to work.For many,the sense of hopelessness grows worse every time they are rejected for a new job.When this happens often enough,the rejection unemployed workers feel may be exacerbated if some friends and neighbors avoid them as if they had a contagious disease.