考研阅读理解Part A命题规律与答题技巧:(四)

考研英语 时间:2007-04-05 我要投稿
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 (四)推理判断题

1. 推理判断题的特点、种类及题干表现形式

    这类题具有较大的难度,要求考生在理解原文的基础上,根据文章中所阐述的事实细节和上下文的暗示与线索进行综合分析,然后做出推断、引申或得出合情合理的结论。因此,考生须细读全文,不仅要掌握文章的表层意义;还要理解深层的内涵;不仅要掌握言明的观点和倾向,还要获取字里行间的信息。切忌无根无据地随意猜想 。这种题型可以针对全文进行提问,也可以只针对一个段落或一句话进行推理。

    推理判断题一般分为三类:

1) 局部推断 (推断句子或段落的内容):表面文字信息和线索是推断的前提和依据,所以增强对能反映作者观点立场的线索的敏感性十分重要。

2) 全面推断:推测文章主题或内容以及文章上文或下文可能出现的内容。

3) 推测文章来源:问何种题材,体裁;文章可能选自何种专著等。

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常用的关键提问词有infer, imply, suggest,conclude,show,appear,support,assume, know,learn,draw conclusion from等。比如:

(1)The passage is intended to ____.   

(2)The passage implies that ____.                      

(3)The writer implies that ____.     

(4)It can be inferred from the passage/text that ____.     

(5)It can be concluded from the passage that ____.      

(6)We can conclude(infer,see)from the article that ____.     

(7)The author suggests that ____.     

(8)An inference which may be made from the article is ____.     

(9)From the last paragraph we know that ____.    

(10)The next paragraph would most probably deal with ____.      

(11)The paragraph preceding (following)this one may discuss ____.     

(12)In the paragraph following this one, we may expect the author to discuss ____.       

(13)The passage appears to be ____.     

2.推理判断题的命题规律

1) 对篇首、篇尾、段落中的主题句概括归纳,从而得出综合性推论。

2) 围绕文章若干段落,推理、判断段落间的关系。

3) 支持主题思想的细节部分常被用来对一定内容进行推理、判断。

4) 文章或段落的开头或结尾总结处。

5) 语义转折处。

3.推理判断题干扰项与正确选项的特点

1)干扰项特点:

A 以假乱真,编造信息:不是在文章事实或上下文(句)逻辑基础上进行推理而得出的观点;

混淆本末,主次不分:虽然以文章提供的事实或内在逻辑为基础进行推理,但推理过头,概括过度。

B 直接、间接不分:文章中明确表达当成推理出来的;

C 因果颠倒:原文的原因变成了选项中的结果,或反之;

D 手段与目的颠倒:原文的手段变成了选项中的目的,或反之。

2)  正确选项的特点:

A 一般含义不肯定(或主观)的,或有新义的,或不合理的是答案。如含有 can, some, more or less, usually, relatively, not necessarily, suggest, be likely to, possible, dubious,expect, ignore, suspect, overlook, like, dislike, new, most, often, discuss, believe, could, may, should, might, whether等词的选项是正确选项。

B 如果四个选项全能凭常识判断,其中含义深刻的是解;或四个选项中惟一一个不是常识项的是答案。

C 应该注意选项中是文中说明的,即使符合原文,也不是正确选项。

4.推理判断题答题技巧例解

    这种题主要测试考生对作者没有直接说出来的隐含内容能否正确理解并得出正确结论,或对作者前面已叙述的内容或下文将要叙述的内容进行正确的推理。考生需根据内容、逻辑关系,有理有据地推断出正确答案。

1) 要求对某段内容做出推理、判断,那么就只看要求作答的那一部分。例如:

 The other side of a state legal apparatus is a state military apparatus. While the one protects the individual from violence, the other sacrifices the individual to violence in the interests of the state. In war the state affirms supreme power over the individuals within its own borders. War is not simply a trial by combat to settle disputes between states; it is the moment when the state makes its most powerful demands upon its people for their commitment, allegiance, and supreme sacrifice. Times of war test a community's deepest religious and ethical commitments.

Q:  What can we learn from the last paragraph?

 [A]Governments tend to abuse their supreme power in times of war.

 [B]In times of war governments may extend their power across national borders.

 [C]In times of war governments impose high religious and ethical standards on their people.

 [D]Governments may sacrifice individuals in the interests of the state in times of war.

答案是[D]。根据题干要求,我们在最后一段(上文)中寻找答案。[A]说在战争期间政府会滥用权力,与原文意义相反;[B]说战争期间政府在边界扩张它们的权力,是对原文第三句话的误解;[C]说战争期间政府对人们有更高的宗教和道德要求,是对最后一句话的误解;[D]说战争期间为了国家利益政府会要求人们做出牺牲,是综合第二句和第四句话后半部分推导出的正确结论。

2)答案选项是文中词句表达形式的转换。例如: 

What might driving on an automated highway be like? The answer depends on what kind of system is ultimately adopted. Two distinct types are on the drawing board. The first is a special-purpose lane system, in which certain lane is reserved for automated vehicles. The second is a mixed traffic system: fully automated vehicles would share the road with partially automated or manual driven cars. A special-purpose lane system would require more extensive physical modifications to existing highways, but it promises the greatest gains in freeway capacity.

Q: We learn from the first paragraph that two systems of automated highways     .

 [A]are being planned              [B]are being modified

 [C]are now in wide use          [D]are under construction

答案是[A]。文中第一段(上文)第三句话的字面意思是两种系统正在制图的过程中,意即[A]“自动车道的两种系统正在计划建设中”。[B]、[C]、[D]明显与原文不符。解答此题的关键是在文中能找到与选项意思一致的句子。

3)合乎常理、意义深刻的一般是答案。例如:

 Taking charge of yourself involves putting to rest some very prevalent myths. At the top of the list is the notion that intelligence is measured by your ability to solve complex problems; to read, write and compute at certain levels; and to resolve abstract equations quickly. This vision of intelligence asserts formal education and bookish excellence as the true measures of self-fulfillment. It encourages a kind of intellectual prejudice that has brought with it some discouraging results. We have come to believe that someone who has more educational merit badges, who is very good at some form of school discipline is "intelligent." Yet mental hospitals are filled with patients who have all of the properly lettered certificates. A truer indicator of intelligence is an effective, happy life lived each present moment of every day.

Q:  It is implied in the passage that holding a university degree ____.     

 [A] may result in one's inability to solve complex real-life problems

 [B] does not indicate one's ability to write properly worded documents

 [C] may make one mentally sick and physically weak

 [D] does not mean that one is highly intelligent

答案是[D]。比较四个选项,发现只有[D]符合一般常识。[A]说拥有大学学历会导致一个人无力解决现实生活中的复杂问题;[B]是对原文letter certificates的误解,它指的是大学学历,而非写作能力;[C]说会使一个人身心疲惫。对比之下,[D]既符合常理,也符合原文。

4)措辞过于绝对,一般不是答案。

5)在处理与主旨大意有关的问题时,或处理与文章首尾有关的推论题时,特别要读懂首尾句,再快速阅读其他部分。

6)结论过于绝对化;结论概括过度;结论过于片面的不是答案。